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4.10 Missing Layers

Sometimes arguments are presented with a whole layer missing between the evidence and the contention.


There is a sizeable gap between the objection and the contention. One sign of a big gap is that the Rabbit rule is not satisfied at all, i.e., there is no overlap in significant terms or concepts between the contention and the objection. 

The argument is really a multi-layer argument, but a layer does not currently appear on the map.

One way to fix this "missing layer" problem. Notice that the objection has become supporting evidence for a higher-level objection.


Another way to fix the problem. In this case the objection is treated as providing evidence against a reason to believe that the astronauts did land on the Moon.

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