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4.11 Summary
Key Points

Here are the four main kinds of multi-layer arguments, joined in a single argument web:


Here are two classic errors in constructing argument maps:


New Concepts

A multi-layer argument is an argument in which there are reasons or objections bearing upon reasons or objections.

The main contention of a multi-layer argument is the one at the top level.  It is the only contention which is not also a premise in another simple argument

A rejoinder is an objection to a reason.  A rejoinder provides evidence that a reason is not a good reason, i.e., not good evidence for its contention.

A rebuttal is an objection to an objection.  A rebuttal provides evidence that an objection is not a good objection, i.e., not good evidence against its contention.

A chain of reasoning is a multi-layer argument.  Usually the term is applied to arguments with more than two layers.

An argument web is an argument which is both multi-reason and multi-layer.

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